…the standard for your lab.

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It has been and continues to be our policy to provide our customers with as much information as possible to purchase the products which best enable them to accomplish their goals. There are times however, when critical information to make good decisions is missing.

We provide contract services designed to reduce learning curves, shorten development timetables, and improve productivity. For new ventures this may entail assisting in equipment installation, setup and on-site training. Well-established laboratories may want to investigate automation for greater efficiency or consider alternative methods to optimize information gained from existing resources.

For further assistance, please email us at: [email protected]

In vitro percutaneous absorption

  • Selection of membranes
    • Human
    • Animal
    • Polymer
  • Skin processing
    • Skin preparation
    • Storage conditions
    • Full thickness vs stratum corneum
  • Selection of appropriate diffusion cell design
    • Franz or flow type Franz
    • Side-Bi-Side or flow type Side-Bi-Side
    • In-Line (Bronaugh Cell)
    • Custom
  • Diffusion cell assembly
    • Clamping
  • Cell design considerations
    • Adsorption to cell material
    • Temperature
    • Edge effects – surface area/perimeter ratio
    • Funnel effects – lateral diffusion
    • Hydrodynamic factors
  • Receptor compartment considerations
    • Buffer composition and pH
    • Solubilizing agents
    • Membrane viability
    • Sink conditions
    • Sample rate and volume
  • Donor compartment considerations
    • Volume or reservoir capacity
    • Effect of vehicle components
    • Solubility and phase equilibria
    • Vehicle viscosity


  • Measurement Applications
    • Membrane permeability
    • Drug solubility
    • Partition coefficients
    • Reaction kinetics
    • Protein binding
  • Feasibility assessment
    • Choosing the right method
    • Estimating return on investment
    • Justifying projected expenses

Experiment Design

  • Factorial designs
  • Identifying factors affecting experimental results
  • Mathematics of error transmission or propagation of error

Pharmaceutical Development Issues

  • Formulation
  • Release from topical and transdermal formulations
  • in vitro/in vivo correlations